I have never met anyone who didn't know some of the Bard's put downs - 'Cankerblossom' comes to mind.
For this list I have chosen some that I think are richer, more textured, and might even be used today - Shakespeare is nothing if not timeless. I will first give the play, so you can go look up the insult in context if you so desire. So without further ado (about nothing, hee hee) let the insults fly.
As You Like It - Let's meet as little as we can.
Henry IV, part 1 - Why, thou clay-brained guts, thou knotty-pated fool, thou whoreson obscene greasy tallow-catch.
All's Well That Ends Well - Methinks thou art a general offense, and every man should beat thee.
Henry V - Thou damned and luxurious mountain goat.
King John - There is not yet so ugly a fiend of hell as thou shall be
King Lear - Thou art a boil, a plague sore, an embossed carbuncle in my corrupted blood.
Measure for Measure - Come, you are a tedious fool.
Timon of Athens - Would thou were clean enough to spit upon.
Troilus and Cressida - Thou hast no more brain than I have in my elbows.
A Midsummer's Night's Dream - I am sick when I look upon thee.
And now one that gets right to the point.
The Winter's Tale - Go rot!